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Ecca Group Wikipedia

OverviewStratigraphic unitsBackgroundGeographic extentCorrelationSee also

The Ecca Group comprises sixteen recognized geological formations. These individual formations have been grouped into three geographical areas, which are the southern, western/northwestern, and northeastern facies successions. In the east of South Africa there are deposits of as of yet undifferentiated mudstone sequences attributed to the Ecca Group. With the exception of the Prince Albert, Whitehill, Collingham, and the uppermost Waterford Formationget price

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Karoo Supergroup Wikipedia

OverviewGeological originSee alsoFurther reading

About 510 million years ago a rift valley developed across Southern Gondwana, just south of Southern Africa, but extending westward into South America, and eastward into Eastern Antarctica and possible even into Australia. An 8 km thick layer of sediment, known as the Cape Supergroup, accumulated on the floor of this rift valley. Closure of the rift valley, starting 330 million years ago, resulted from the development of a subductionzone along the southern margin of Gondwana, and the consequent drift of get price

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Coal Minerals Council South Africa

South Africa’s coal resources are contained in the Ecca deposits, a stratum of the Karoo Supergroup, and date from the Permian period between 280 and 250 Ma. In general terms, they are largely located in the north-eastern quarter of the country.get price

Palynological records of the Permian Ecca Group (South

The Karoo Basin hosts important coal resources of South Africa (Johnson et al., 1997, Cairncross, 2001). The Witbank coal field comprises the basin's northeastern and most economic coal deposits (Snyman, 1998) with 5 coal seams (coal seams 1–5 in ascending order) that belong stratigraphically to the Vryheid Formation.get price

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Coal Mining in Africa Mining Africa

Coal Mining Supplying Energy to AfricaUses For CoalThe History of Coal MiningWhere Coal Is MinedCoal Mining in AfricaCoal Mining Set to Expand in AfricaThe aim of coal mining is to extract coal from the earth. In the UK and South Africa coal mines are called colliery, in Australia a colliery is a coal mine located underground.See more on miningafrica.net

ecca group south africa al MC Machinery

Coal in South Africa Wikipedia. 2019-10-13 The largest coal deposits in South Africa are to be found in the Ecca deposits, a stratum of the Karoo Supergroup, dating get price

Coal deposits of South Africa the future of coal mining

Coal deposits of South Africa the future of coal mining in South Africa Stephan Schmidt Institute for Geology, Gustav-Zeuner-Str.12, 09599 Freiberg Abstract. This paper gives an overview over the deposits of hard coal in South Africa. South Africa is the fifth largest coal producing country in the world.get price

Palynological records of the Permian Ecca Group (South

1998) with 5 coal seams (coal seams 1 5 in ascending order) that belong stratigraphically to the Vryheid Formation. One of the most important coal seams of the Witbank coal field, the No. 2 Coal Seam, represents postglacial fluvio -deltaic deposits of the Lower Ecca Groupget price

South African Coal XMP Consulting

the south and covers an area of approximately 7 000km2. After the Witbank Coalfield, the Highveld Coalfield is the next largest producing Coalfield in South Africa. The Coalfield is host to up to five coal seams within the middle Ecca Group sediments of the Karoo Supergroup. The Karoo Supergroup comprises sediments ascribed to deposition inget price

Major Mines & Projects Zibulo Mine

After the Witbank Coalfield, the Highveld Coalfield is the next largest producing coalfield, on a tonnage basis, in South Africa. The coalfield is host to up to five coal Seams contained within the middle Ecca Group sediments of the Karoo Supergroup, approximately 280 million years in age.get price

ecca group south africa al MC Machinery

Coal in South Africa Wikipedia. 2019-10-13 The largest coal deposits in South Africa are to be found in the Ecca deposits, a stratum of the Karoo Supergroup, dating get price

Major Mines & Projects Zibulo Mine

After the Witbank Coalfield, the Highveld Coalfield is the next largest producing coalfield, on a tonnage basis, in South Africa. The coalfield is host to up to five coal Seams contained within the middle Ecca Group sediments of the Karoo Supergroup, approximately 280 million years in age.get price

South African Coal XMP Consulting

the south and covers an area of approximately 7 000km2. After the Witbank Coalfield, the Highveld Coalfield is the next largest producing Coalfield in South Africa. The Coalfield is host to up to five coal seams within the middle Ecca Group sediments of the Karoo Supergroup. The Karoo Supergroup comprises sediments ascribed to deposition inget price

Characterization of the coal resources of South Africa

Coal is found in South Africa in 19 coalfields (Figure 1), located mainly in KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, Limpopo, and the Free State, with lesser amounts in Gauteng, the North West Province and the Eastern Cape. Table I summarizes pertinent geological information about the coal seams in each of the 19 coalfields, while Table II contains coalget price

Major Mines & Projects Impunzi Mine

The Ecca Group consists predominantly of sandstone, siltstone, shale and coal. The Vryheid Formation in the Ecca Group contains five bituminous coal seams, numbered as No. 1 to No. 5 from bottom to top. The No. 2, No. 4 and No. 5 seams are the most economical coal seams to get price

Open Geosciences Walter de Gruyter

The Ecca Group of Karoo Supergroup is a sedimentary rock sequence that accumulated between the Late Carboniferous Dwyka Group and the Late Permian-Middle Triassic Beaufort Group . This sedimentary succession outcrops in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and it comprises mainly of mudstones, siltstones and sandstones .get price

An overview of the Permian (Karoo) coal deposits of

This depth increases in the south, south-west and west in the Free State area where younger Triassic cover rocks overly the coal-bearing Ecca Group strata. In the main coal mining regions of the Witbank, Highveld and KwaZulu–Natal coalfields ( Fig. 2 (a), columns 1–3), opencast operations are utilised to extract the shallow coals whileget price

Mining Weekly Grootegeluk Coal Mine, South Africa

Grootegeluk Coal Mine, South Africa. 9th June 2000 By: System Author. The coal deposit forms part of the Ecca group and eleven coal-bearing zones can be distinguished. The coal seams mined atget price

XIX. SOUTH AFRICA

of Australia and Anglo Coal of South Africa. 1. KAROO BASIN 1.1 Introduction The Karoo foreland basin is filled with over 5 km of Carboniferous to Early Jurassic sedimentary strata. The Early Permian-age Ecca Group underlies much of the Karoo Basin, cropping out along the southern and western basin margins, Figure XIX-1. The Ecca Groupget price

South Africa proved coal reserves 2018 Statista

Nov 11, 2019 South Africa consumes approximately 75 percent of the coal it produces. Its largest coal deposits are found in the Ecca Group, covering approximately two thirds of the country. Read moreget price

Ecca Group stec.ukzn.ac.za

The burial of the vegetation in the swamps eventually formed coal which is mined in the Vryheid area. Glossopteris leafs from the Ecca group (near Cedara, KwaZulu-Natal). The original leafs have been oxidised and replaced by iron oxide.get price

Palynological records of the Early Permian icehouse

Request PDF Palynological records of the Early Permian icehouse-greenhouse transition (Ecca Group, South Africa) The Permian coal-bearing formations of the South African Karoo Basin play aget price

Coal mining project in South Africa Mining

Coal mining project in South Africa needs US$5 million investor. The farms lie within the Ellisras Coal Field. The subjacent geology of the Lephalale region consist of quartzite sandstone of the Waterberg Super Group in the south whilst Karoo Super Group is found to the north and east, consisting of sandstone and shale.get price

The Karoo Supergroup, South Africa

Once the sub-continent entered more temperate climes, the glaciers melted and created a large, composite swamp over much of Southern Africa. The rich organic life that flourished in these swamps and marshes would eventually consolidate into the substantial coal fields of the Ecca Group of get price

Ecca Group stec.ukzn.ac.za

The burial of the vegetation in the swamps eventually formed coal which is mined in the Vryheid area. Glossopteris leafs from the Ecca group (near Cedara, KwaZulu-Natal). The original leafs have been oxidised and replaced by iron oxide.get price

SOUTH AFRICAN COAL SECTOR REPORT

classified as a coal reserve. South Africa’s coal resources are contained in the Ecca deposits, a stratum of the Karoo Supergroup. There are 19 coalfields in the country and they are largely located in the north-eastern quarter of the country, i.e. Mpumalanga, Limpopo and get price

Coal mining project in South Africa Mining

Coal mining project in South Africa needs US$5 million investor. The farms lie within the Ellisras Coal Field. The subjacent geology of the Lephalale region consist of quartzite sandstone of the Waterberg Super Group in the south whilst Karoo Super Group is found to the north and east, consisting of sandstone and shale.get price

Palynological records of the Early Permian icehouse

Request PDF Palynological records of the Early Permian icehouse-greenhouse transition (Ecca Group, South Africa) The Permian coal-bearing formations of the South African Karoo Basin play aget price

The Karoo Supergroup, South Africa

Once the sub-continent entered more temperate climes, the glaciers melted and created a large, composite swamp over much of Southern Africa. The rich organic life that flourished in these swamps and marshes would eventually consolidate into the substantial coal fields of the Ecca Group of get price

LEGEND CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHIC MAP OF THE REPUBLIC

Folding and thrusting (Cape Fold Belt) in south Terrestrial vertebrates (including mammal-like reptiles) common (Beaufort Group) Glossopteris flora flourishes and major coal deposits formed (Ecca Group) Widespread glaciation (Dwyka Group) Northward subduction of palaeo-Pacific plate initiates foreland Karoo Basin behind magmatic arcget price

Palynofacies patterns of the Highveld coal deposits (Karoo

AITKEN G.A. 1994. Permian palynomorphs from the Number 5 Seam, Ecca Group, Witbank/Highveld Coalfields, South Africa. Palaeontol. Afric., 31: 97-109. AITKEN G.A. 1998. A palynological and palaeoenvironmental analysis of Permian and Early Triassic sediments of the Ecca and the Beaufort groups, Northern Karoo Basin, South Africa.get price

Coal Mining in South Africa Afri Coal Investments (Pty) Ltd

The use of coal in South Africa dates back to the iron-age (300-1880 AD), when charcoal was used to melt iron and copper, but large-scale exploitation of coal did not occur until the mid-19th century. The largest coal deposits in South Africa are to be found in the Ecca Group, a stratum of the Karoo Supergroup, dating from between 280 and 250 Ma.get price

A review of the stratigraphy and sedimentary environments

The present outcrop area of Karoo rocks in southern Africa is about 300 000 km 2 with a maximum thickness of some 8000 m. The economic importance of these sediments lies in the vast reserves of coal within the Ecca Group rocks of northern and eastern Transvaal and Natal, South Africa.get price

(PDF) An overview of the Permian (Karoo) coal deposits of

An overview of the Permian (Karoo) coal deposits of southern Africa. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 33, 529-562 Article (PDF Available) in Journal of African Earth Sciences 33(3-4):529-562get price

Coal mine pitlakes in South Africa

Coal mine pitlakes in South Africa Andrew Johnstone1, Lizel Kennedy2 1GCS (Pty) Ltd, 63 Wessel Road, Rivonia, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2128, [email protected] horizons consisting of the Upper and Middle Ecca group where 11 coal zones are present.get price

A provisional basinal study of the Waterberg-Karoo, South

the Limpopo Province, South Africa (Fig. 1.1). A larger portion of the Basin extends to the west into Botswana where it is referred to as the Kalahari Basin, whilst theget price

Energy Resources of Karoo-aged Basins CIMERA

Energy Resources of Karoo-aged Basins. Champion: Prof Nikki Wagner. Major focus on coal deposits and potential for natural gas production including shale gas with some work on Cretaceous basins of southern Africa. Ecca Group in the main Karoo Basin, South Africa. Studentget price

Overview of Coal Resources in South Africa Final comp

overview of coal resources in south africa john hancox 5 years on. talk layout ecca group vittatina sp. beaufort group. molteno formation. dolerite. weathered versus heat affected coal . resources and reserves samrec (2016) qualities ( in situ) per coalfield source: jeffrey, 2019.get price